Kidney Stones

Kidney stones affect more than 10 percent of the American population and are becoming more common.

Evaluation

The evaluation begins with a detailed history and physical examination and may include the following:

  • Urinalysis
  • Urine culture and sensitivity
  • KUB
  • CT scan
  • Stone analysis
  • 24-hour urine study
  • Bloodwork

Causes

Numerous factors contribute to stone formation and frequently more than one may be present. These may include the following:

  • Metabolic factors (influenced by patient’s genetics)
  • Environmental factors (such as mineral content in water, dehydration esp. during warm weather.)
  • Dietary factors
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI)
  • Anatomical differences

Treatment

The treatment option best suited for each patient is dependent on the stone size, location and other health issues. These treatments may include the following:

  • Medications
  • Dietary management of stones
  • Lithotripsy
  • Ureteroscopy with laser stone fragmentation/extraction
  • Ureteral stent
  • Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL)
  • Open stone surgery (rare)
  • Monitoring patients with small stones and allow them to try and pass the stone

Summary

There are a variety of factors that lead to the formation of stones, and an individual plan for the treatment of the current stone and a future stone prevention plan will be discussed with the patient.